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01-11-2011 01:50 PM

Muslim Womens Dress (Islamic or Cultural
[B][FONT=Arial][COLOR=#0000ff][SIZE=+1]The Quran and [I]Hijab[/I][/SIZE][/COLOR][/FONT][/B]
[B]Islam has strongly emphasized the concept of decency[/B][B] and[/B] [B]modesty in the interaction between members of the opposite sex. Dress code is part of that overall teaching. There are two verses in the Quran in which Almighty Allah talks about the issue of decency and [/B][B][I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I] as defined earlier.[/B]


[B]In Chapter 24 known as an-N[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]ūr[/FONT] (the Light), in verse 30, Allah commands Prophet Mu[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT]ammad as follows:[/B]

[CENTER][FONT=Traditional Arabic][B] , .[/B][/FONT][/CENTER]

[B][I]Say to the believing men that: they should cast down their glances and guard their private parts (by being chaste). This is better for them. [/I][/B]
[B]This is a command to Muslim men that they should not lustfully look at women (other than their own wives); and in order to prevent any possibility of temptation, they are required to cast their glances downwards.This is known as [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I]of the eyes.[/B]

[B]Then in the next verse, Allah commands the Prophet to address the women:[/B]

[CENTER][CENTER][FONT=Traditional Arabic][B] ...[/B][/FONT][/CENTER][/CENTER]
[I][B]Say to the believing women that: they should cast down their glances and guard their private parts (by being chaste)[/B][/I]
[B]This is a similar command as given to the men in the previous verse regarding [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I] of the eyes.[/B]

[B]This [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I] of eyes is similar to the teaching of Jesus where he says, You have heard that it was said by them of old time, you shall not commit adultery. But I say unto you, That whosoever looks on a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart.[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_edn2"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ftn2"][U][COLOR=#800080][2][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL] So if you see a Muslim casting his/her eyes downwards when he/she is talking to a member of opposite sex, this should not be considered as rude or an indication of lack of confidence he/she is just abiding by the Quranic as well as Biblical teaching.[/B]


[B]After [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I] of the eyes came the order describing the dress code for women:[/B]

[RIGHT][RIGHT][FONT=Traditional Arabic][B] ...[/B][/FONT][/RIGHT][/RIGHT]
[B][I]...and not display their beauty except what is apparent, and they should place their [/I]khumur [I]over their bosoms...[/I][/B]

[B]There are two issues about this sentence.[/B]

[CENTER][CENTER][B](1) What is the meaning of [I]khumur[/I] used in this verse?[/B][/CENTER][/CENTER]
[B][I]Khumur[/I] is plural of [I]khimar[/I], the veil covering the head. See any Arabic dictionary like [I]Lisanu l-Arab, Majmau l-Ba[/I][I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT][/I][I]rayn [/I]or [I]al-Munjid[/I].[/B]
[B][I]Al-Munjid[/I], which is the most popular dictionary in the Arab world, defines [I]al-khimar[/I] as something with which a woman conceals her head . Fakhru d-Din a[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]l-T[/FONT]uray[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT]i in [I]Majmau l-Ba[/I][I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT][/I][I]rayn[/I] (which is a dictionary of Quranic and [FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT]adith terms) defines [I]al-khimar[/I] as scarf, and it is known as such because the head is covered with it.[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_edn3"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ftn3"][U][COLOR=#800080][3][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL][/B]
[B][COLOR=black]So the word [/COLOR][I]khimar[/I], by definition, means a piece of cloth that covers the head.[/B]

[CENTER][CENTER][B](2) Then what does the clause [I]placing the khumur over the bosoms[/I] mean?[/B][/CENTER][/CENTER]

[B]According to the commentators of the Quran, the women of Medina in the pre-Islamic era used to put their [I]khumur[/I] over the head with the two ends tucked behind and tied at the back of the neck, in the process exposing their ears and neck. By saying that, place the [I]khumur[/I] over the bosoms, Almighty Allah ordered the women to let the two ends of their headgear extend onto their bosoms so that they conceal their ears, the neck, and the upper part of the bosom also.[/B][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_edn4"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ftn4"][U][COLOR=#800080][B][4][/B][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL]
[B]This is confirmed by the way the Muslim women of the Prophets era understood this commandment of Almighty Allah. The Sunni sources quote Ummu l-muminin Aisha, the Prophets wife, as follows: I have not seen women better than those of al-Ansar (the inhabitants of Medina): when this verse was revealed, all of them got hold of their aprons, tore them apart, and used them to cover their heads...[/B][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_edn5"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ftn5"][U][COLOR=#800080][B][5][/B][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL]
[B]The meaning of [I]khimar[/I] and the con**** in which the verse was revealed clearly talks about concealing the head and then using the loose ends of the scarf to conceal the neck and the bosom. It is absurd to believe that the Quran would use the word [I]khimar[/I] (which, by definition, means a cloth that covers the head) only to conceal the bosom with the exclusion of the head! It would be like saying to put on your shirt only around the belly or the waist without covering the chest![/B]

[B]Finally the verse goes on to give the list of the [I]ma[/I][I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT][/I][I]ram [/I] male family members in whose presence the [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I]is not required, such as the husband, the father, the father-in-law, the son(s), and others.[/B]
[FONT=Times New Roman]


[B][COLOR=black]In Chapter 33 known as al-A[/COLOR][COLOR=black][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT][/COLOR][COLOR=black]zab, verse 59, Allah gives the following command to Prophet Mu[/COLOR][COLOR=black][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT][/COLOR][COLOR=black]ammad:[/COLOR][/B]

[FONT=Traditional Arabic][B] , : ...[/B][/FONT]
[B][I]O Prophet! Say toyour wives, your daughters, and the women of the believers that: they should let down upon themselves their [/I]jalabib.[I][/I] [/B]

[CENTER][CENTER][B]What is the meaning of [I]jalabib[/I]?[/B][/CENTER][/CENTER]

[B][I]Jalabib[/I]is the plural of [I]jilbab[/I][FONT=Traditional Arabic][/FONT], which means a loose outer garment. See any Arabic dictionary like [I]Lisanu l-Arab, Majmau l-Ba[/I][I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT][/I][I]rayn [/I]or[I] al-Munjid[/I].[/B]
[B][I]Al-Munjid,[/I] for instance, defines [I]jilbab[/I] as the shirt or a wide dress . While a[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]l-T[/FONT]uray[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hi[/FONT], in [I]Majmau l-Ba[/I][I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT][/I][I]rayn[/I], defines it as a wide dress, wider than the scarf and shorter than a robe, that a woman puts upon her head and lets it down on her bosom...[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_edn6"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ftn6"][U][COLOR=#800080][6][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL][/B]
[B]This means that the Islamic dress code for women does not only consist of a scarf that covers the head, the neck and the bosom; it also includes the overall dress that should be long and loose.[/B]

[B]So, for instance, the combination of a tight, short sweater with tight-fitting jeans with a scarf over the head does not fulfill the requirements of the Islamic dress code.[/B]


[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ednref2"][U][COLOR=#800080][2][/COLOR][/U][/URL] [I]The Gospel of Matthew,[/I] chap. 5, verses 27-28.

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ednref3"][U][COLOR=#800080][3][/COLOR][/U][/URL] [I]Al-Munjid[/I] (Beirut: Daru l-Mashriq, 1986) p. 195; at-Turayh, [I]Majmau l-Bahrayn,[/I] vol.1 (Tehran: Daftar Nashr, 1408 AH) p. 700. See at-Tusi, [I]at-Tibyan[/I], vol. 7 (Qum: Maktabatu l-llam al-Islami, 1409 AH) p. 428; at-Tabrasi, [I]Majmau l-Bayan[/I], vol. 7 (Beirut: Dar Ihyai t-Turathi l-Arabi, 1379AH) p.138; also see the famous Sunni commentator, Fakhru d-Din ar-Razi, [I]at-Tafsiru l-Kabir[/I], vol. 23 (Beirut: Daru l-Kutubi l-Ilmiyya, 1990) p. 179-180. Even the [I]Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic [/I](Ithaca, NY: Spoken Languages Services, 1976) defines [I]al-khimar[/I] as veil covering head and face of a woman. (p. 261) No one has excluded the covering of the head from definition of [I]al-khimar[/I].

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ednref4"][U][COLOR=#800080][4][/COLOR][/U][/URL] Ar-Razi, [I]at-Tafsiru l-Kabir[/I], vol.23, p. 179, and other famous commentaries and collections of hadith such as at-Tabatabai, [I]al-Mizan[/I], vol. 15 (Tehran: Daru l-Kutub, 1397AH) p. 121; al-Kulayni, [I]al-Furu mina l-Kafi[/I], vol. 5 (Tehran: Daru l-Kutub, 1367AH) p. 521. Also see the commentaries of al-Kashshaf, Ibn Kathir, at-Tabari, and al-Qurtubi.

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ednref5"][U][COLOR=#800080][5][/COLOR][/U][/URL] Ibid, also see, al-Bukhari, [I]Sahih[/I] (Arabic & English) vol. 6 (Beirut: Daru l-Arabiyya) p. 267; Abu l-Ala Mawdudi, [I]Tafhimu l-Quran[/I], vol. 3 (Lahore: Idara-e Tarjuman-e Quran, 1994) p. 316.

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/3.htm#_ednref6"][U][COLOR=#800080][6][/COLOR][/U][/URL] Ibid. [I]al-Munjid[/I], p. 96; at-Turayhi, [I]Majmau l-Bahrayn[/I], vol. 1, p.384.

01-11-2011 01:51 PM

[FONT=Arial][COLOR=#0000ff][SIZE=+1]The Sunna and [I]Hijab[/I][/SIZE][/COLOR][/FONT]
The [I]sunna[/I] the sayings and examples of the Prophet Mu[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT]ammad (s.a.w.) is the second most important source for Islamic laws. It is impossible to truly understand the Quran without studying the Prophets life that provided the con**** in which the holy Book was revealed. Almighty Allah says,

[B][I]And We have revealed to you (O Muhammad) the Reminder (i.e., the Quran) so that you may clarify to the people what has been revealed to them, and so that they may reflect.[/I][/B][B] (16:44) [/B]

Sunna is that clarification mentioned in this verse.

There is a tendency among the so-called progressive and liberated Muslims to claim that they only follow the Quran and ignore the [I]sunna[/I] of the Prophet. Responding to such Muslims, Drs. Murata and Chittick write, We are perfectly aware that many contemporary Muslims are tired of what they consider outdated material: they would like to discard their intellectual heritage and replace it with truly scientific endeavors, such as sociology. By claiming that the Islamic intellectual heritage is superfluous and that the Koran is sufficient, such people have surrendered to the spirit of the times. This is a far different enterprise than that pursued by the great authorities, who interpreted their present in the light of a grand tradition and who never fell prey to the up-to-datethat most obsolescent of all abstractions.[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_edn7"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ftn7"][U][COLOR=#800080][7][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL]
From the Shii point of view, the authentic sayings of the Imams of Ahlul Bayt portray the true [I]sunna[/I] of the Prophet and further clarify the meaning of the Quranic verses. The Prophet himself introduced the Ahlul Bayt as the twin of the Quran.[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_edn8"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ftn8"][U][COLOR=#800080][8][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL]

The following two sayings from the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt on the issue of [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I] are presented here as an example.

Al-Fu[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]d[/FONT]ayl bin Yasar asked Imam a[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]s-S[/FONT]adiq (a.s.) about the forearms of a woman: whether they are included in the beauty as described by the Almighty when He says, [I]and they should not display their beauty except for their husbands...[/I] The Imam replied, Yes, and what is beneath the veil covering the head ([I]khimar[/I]) is from the beauty [as mentioned in the verse], and also what is beneath the wristbands.[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_edn9"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ftn9"][U][COLOR=#800080][9][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL] As one can clearly see in this authentic [FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT]ad[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]i[/FONT]th, the Imam has exempted the face and the hands, but everything else has been counted as [I]the beauty that should not be displayed except for their husbands...[/I]

Abu Na[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]s[/FONT]r al-Bazin[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]li[/FONT] quotes Imam Ali as-Ri[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]d[/FONT]a (a.s.) as follows: A woman does not have to cover her head in the presence of a boy who has not yet reached the age of puberty.[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_edn10"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ftn10"][U][COLOR=#800080][10][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL] The implication of this statement is obvious that once a boy who is not related to a woman reaches the age of puberty, she has to cover her head in his presence.

Even the founders of the Sunni schools of law are unanimous in this view. According to the Malik[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]i[/FONT], the [FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]H[/FONT]anaf[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]i[/FONT], the Shafi[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]i[/FONT], and the [FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]H[/FONT]anbal[FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]i[/FONT] views, the entire body of a woman is [I]awrah[/I] and therefore it should be covered with the exception of the face and the hands.[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_edn11"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ftn11"][U][COLOR=#800080][11][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL]
[B]The two verses discussed above put together clearly show that [/B][B][I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I][/B][B], as a decent code of dress for Muslim women, is part of the Quranic teachings. This is also confirmed by how the Prophet Mu[/B][B][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]h[/FONT][/B][B]ammad (s.a.w.) understood and implemented these verses among the Muslim women. This is further confirmed by how the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.), and the Muslim scholars of the early generations of Islam understood the Quran.[/B][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_edn12"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ftn12"][U][COLOR=#800080][12][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL]
[B][COLOR=black]It is an understanding that has been continuously affirmed by Muslims for the last fourteen centuries. And, strangely, now we hear some so-called experts of Islam telling us that [/COLOR][/B][B][I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I][/B][B]has nothing to do with Islam, it is just a cultural issue and a matter of personal choice![/B]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman]


[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ednref7"][U][COLOR=#800080][7][/COLOR][/U][/URL] Sachiko Murata & William C. Chittick, [I]The Vision of Islam[/I] (St. Paul, MN: Paragon House, 1995) p. xi.

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ednref8"][U][COLOR=#800080][8][/COLOR][/U][/URL] For more information on the [I]sunna[/I] and also the connection between the Quran and the Ahlul Bayt, see my [I]Introduction to Islamic Laws[/I].

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ednref9"][U][COLOR=#800080][9][/COLOR][/U][/URL] Al-Kulayni, [I]al-Furu mina l-Kafi,[/I] vol. 2, p. 64.

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ednref10"][U][COLOR=#800080][10][/COLOR][/U][/URL] As-Saduq, [I]Man la Yahduruhu l-Faqih,[/I] vol. 2, p. 140; [I]Qurbu l-Asnad,[/I] p. 170. See [I]Wasailu sh-Shiah,[/I] vol. 14 (Beirut: Dar at-Turath al-Arabi, n.d.) p. 169.

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ednref11"][U][COLOR=#800080][11][/COLOR][/U][/URL] Abdu r-Rahman al-Juzari, [I]al-Fiqh ala l-Madhahibi l-Arbaah,[/I] vol. 5 (Beirut: Daru l-Fikr, 1969) p. 54-55.

[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/4.htm#_ednref12"][U][COLOR=#800080][12][/COLOR][/U][/URL] Besides the references quoted earlier, also see at-Tabrasi, [I]Majmau l-Bayan,[/I] vol. 7-8, p. 138, 370; at-Tusi, [I]at-Tibyan,[/I] vol. 8, p. 361; Fakhru d-Din ar-Razi, [I]at-Tafsiru l-Kabir,[/I] vol. 23, p. 179-180.

01-11-2011 01:52 PM

[FONT=Arial][COLOR=#0000ff][SIZE=+1]Muslim Culture & the Style of [I]Hijab[/I][/SIZE][/COLOR][/FONT]
It is quite probable that these so-called experts of Islam and of the Middle East have confused the basic order of the Quran with the style of [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I] worn by Muslim women of various ethnic backgrounds.

The requirement of [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I] is a Quranic command. The basic requirement is that a Muslim woman should cover her head and bosom with a [I]khimar[/I] (a head covering), and her body with a [I]jilbab[/I] (a loose over-garment). Of course, she can leave her face and hands open.[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/5.htm#_edn13"][URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/5.htm#_ftn13"][U][COLOR=#800080][13][/COLOR][/U][/URL][/URL]
When it comes to the style, colour, and material of the [I]khimar[/I] and [I]jilbab[/I], each Muslim ethnic group can follow the Quranic injunction according to their own cultural background. The variety in styles of implementing the same Quranic law is so because Islam is a world religion, it is cannot be confined to one region or tribe or culture. Therefore you see that the Muslim women in Arabia use [I]abaya[/I]; the Persian Muslim women use[I] chador[/I]; the Afghani Muslim women use [I]burqa;[/I] the Indo-Pakistani Muslim women use[I] niqab [/I]or[I] purdah[/I]; the Malaysian/Indonesian Muslim women use [I]kerudung[/I][I];[/I] the East African Muslim women use [I]buibui[/I]; and now in the West, the Canadian Muslim women use mainstream clothes worn with a bigger scarf over the head and a loose outfit.

Islam is not concerned with the style as long as it fulfills the basic requirement of[I] khimar[/I] and[I] jilbab[/I]. This is where the religion and culture interact with one another, and therein lies the dynamic aspect of the Islamic [I]sharia;[/I] and this interaction might have confused some of the so-called experts of Islam who erroneously believe that [I][FONT=Transliteration Times New Roman]hijab[/FONT][/I] is a cultural tradition and not a religious requirement.



[URL="http://www.al-islam.org/hijab/5.htm#_ednref13"][U][COLOR=#800080][13][/COLOR][/U][/URL] Putting a veil to cover the face is not the initial requirement of the rules of [I]hijab.[/I] The Shii as well as majority of Sunni jurists say that the face should be covered only if there is a danger of [I]fitna,[/I] a situation that could lead to committing a sin.

01-11-2011 10:37 PM

jazakumullau khairan

01-12-2011 09:51 AM

[QUOTE= ;433477]jazakumullau khairan[/QUOTE]

many thanks my sister

04:03 PM.

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